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Deep History of Sea Country: Climate Sea level and Culture

Funded by Australian Research Council (Discovery Project DP170100812)

Submerged landscape archaeology is an under-researched field in Australia and represents a major opportunity to address knowledge gaps in world prehistory such as early human migrations, the archaeology of land bridges and coastal-hinterland cultural exchange.

 

DHSC Project Team: Chief Investigators Jonathan Benjamin and Mick O’Leary

This is part of an on-going series featuring the DHSC project team. This post features Dr Jonathan Benjamin, Associate Professor in Maritime Archaeology at Flinders University and Dr Mick O’Leary, Senior Lecturer in Marine Geosciences as the University of Western Australia. The two have been collaborating since 2016 and have spent the past three years with the DHSC team investigating the seabed in Murujuga (Dampier Archipelago).

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Dr Jonathan Benjamin during DHSC fieldwork (photo: S. Wright)

I learned to dive in 2003 just before moving to Scotland where I undertook my Ph.D. in Archaeology at the University of Edinburgh. Before that, I had spent my undergraduate years studying four-field anthropology, with a focus on palaeoanthropology and archaeology, first at Boston University before completing my BA at UCLA. I loved archaeological fieldwork, language and travel, and so I minored in French and went on to study European prehistory at Edinburgh. There, I combined my interest in archaeology with underwater field methods, first in the cold waters of Scotland’s inland lochs, before shifting to the Mediterranean and warmer, saltier water. I wrote my Ph.D. on the Northern Adriatic, asking: where were the Neolithic and Mesolithic coastal sites in the region? I stayed focused on European prehistory for some time, before turning to the wider issues of coastal and underwater archaeology as a specialisation, working on sites and material culture from all chronological periods. That experience led to my appointment at Flinders University in 2014 when I took up a lectureship in the maritime archaeology program in Adelaide, South Australia, which I now call home (I am proudly a dual citizen). The role as Lead CI on the DSHC project has been a steep learning curve for me, working on a complex project with a large team and my first real experience in Australian archaeology and coastal geomorphology. I had my first cultural awareness inductions with the Traditional Owners and attended my first Council of Elders meetings as a guest of the Murujuga Aboriginal Corporation, who formally authorised their approval our project. Working in unfamiliar territory has been a challenge, but also an incredible opportunity to learn about landscapes and people, past and present.

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Dr Benjamin coordinating the team of scientific divers during DHSC fieldwork (photo: S. Wright)

The DHSC project is an international project with two case study areas. We’ve incorporated method and theory from both Australian archaeology and from Europe, where submerged landscape studies has matured into a bona fide sub-discipline of archaeology and marine geosciences, with considerable contributions from the SPLASHCOS Network and my mentor and DHSC Senior Scholar Prof Geoff Bailey. The landscapes where we have worked during DHSC, in Denmark and northwest Australia, could not be more contrasting. Yet the archaeology, and the ways we study past cultures, has made for some remarkable and though-provoking comparisons. Worldwide, ancient coasts and their human inhabitants were significantly impacted by rising sea levels during the last glacial period, and subsequent warming into the early Holocene. By working with local specialists and studying the evolving coasts we can consider the impacts of marine transgression on past peoples and the archaeological sites they left behind thousands of years ago.

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The Australian sun is no joke! (photo: S. Wright)

Suffice it to say, that the move from Northern Europe to work in the heat of north-western Australia took some acclimation! Fieldwork in Australia is very different, but it is also incredible. The country is magnificent, and its archaeology is ancient and beautiful. Diving in a region that is warm and plentiful in marine life has been a pleasure, though we have had to take a few extra precautions due to the size of some of the local fish! Fortunately for us, they are well fed and shy. Despite these beautiful distractions, and the ever-present need to consider health and safety of our team during all our operations, our scientific diving has remained firmly focused on the search for submerged cultural heritage and drowned archaeology.

Day_6__08840.jpgDr Jonathan Benjamin and Dr Maddy Fowler investigate the intertidal zone during DHSC fieldwork (photo: S. Wright)

Amongst the most rewarding aspects of the DHSC project has been working with our team, in particular Mick O’Leary who has taught me an incredible amount about geomorphology, both generally and as a regional expert on the northwest shelf. ‘I will never again go into the field without a geomorphologist!’ I remember saying during one of our field campaigns that we have co-directed over the past several years in Murujuga (Dampier Archipelago). Indeed, a good geomorphologist is worth their weight in gold! It is especially great to be able to stand on the bow of a boat and discuss physical landscape evolution, and review how and where underwater archaeological site preservation is most likely to occur. For an archaeologist working on submerged landscapes, this is priceless and has led to a great collaboration and joint supervision of talented emerging scholars in submerged landscape studies.Day_6__09747.jpgDr Jonathan Benjamin during DHSC fieldwork (photo: S. Wright)

It is also a big job to undertake a major scientific diving operation as part of a research project like this one. Seeing our research students and early career colleagues, who represent the next generation in archaeology, emerging into specialists in their own right has been incredibly fulfilling, and fun! I am fortunate to have had a great team of colleagues and students to work with during the DHSC project. Working on these ancient submerged landscapes in collaboration with the local TOs and with a team of such enthusiastic researchers and emerging scholars has been an honour.

Day_5__08020.jpgDive tanks must be filled at the end of each day (photo: S. Wright)

Dr Mick O’Leary (University of Western Australia)
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Dr Mick O’Leary getting wet during DHSC fieldwork 

As a marine geoscientist with research expertise in the fields of tropical coastal geomorphology, coral reef and reef-island evolution, and climate change I have been in charge of the geo-scientific and landscape evolution elements of the DHSC project. I studied at JCU, earning a BSc (Hons) and PhD in 2007 before being awarded a three year Leverhulme Trust Post Doctoral Fellowship at Manchester Metropolitan University in the UK. I went on to undertake on a Research Fellowship at Boston University (USA) before going on to work at Curtin University and now UWA. I have held a leadership role as CI on the DHSC Project since its inception and worked alongside my archaeological colleagues to help understand the region, its natural and cultural histories.

My main research focus is on ancient sea-level reconstructions during periods of known climate instability. And although I mostly focus on past sea levels, the data we collect can also be used to inform, future sea-level rise and their impacts.

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Dr Mick O’Leary recording an intertidal feature during DHSC fieldwork

Working on the DHSC and its research objectives since the beginning has required a multidisciplinary, synergistic approach to fieldwork and project planning. We have applied traditional elements of geomorphology, sedimentology and palaeoecology, high resolution geochronological methodologies with cultural and archaeological method and theory. In this respect, the DHSC project has been a true geoarchaeological project, with its results reflecting the various disciplines and perspectives represented by this team. We’ve gotten to know a range of people and colleagues and have shared many long days aboard our local charter vessel.

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Dr Mick O’Leary operating the drop-camera during DHSC fieldwork. Mick’s hot tip: never keep your car keys in your shirt pocket while working on a boat!

Fieldwork is fun but exhausting! We are up early, on the boat and going back and forth between islands. The days can be long but are also very rewarding. And discovery of new sites and new ideas never gets old. The DHSC project has been a great opportunity to jump in and get wet, quite literally! And working in Murujuga in consultation with the Traditional Owners has been a privilege. The DHSC project has also opened up a new frontier in archaeology, bridging geo-sciences with maritime archaeology in a way that has never been done before. It is something we can be proud of and will surely look back in future years to come with fondness and respectful appreciation to the team, the TOs and the local community.

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Dr Mick O’Leary, imagining geomorphology as an Olympic sport during DHSC fieldwork

DHSC Project Team: Chief Investigators Jo McDonald and Sean Ulm

This is part of our on-going series on the DHSC project team. In this post we feature two of the project’s Chief Investigators, Prof Jo McDonald (University of Western Australia) and Prof Sean Ulm (James Cook University).

DHSC CI Prof Jo McDonald 

I first started working on the Murujuga rock art (petroglyphs) when helping to write the scientific values report for the National Heritage Listing in 2005.  Since moving to UWA in 2012, I have worked more intensively on the rock art and archaeology in this inscribed landscape. I have taught undergraduates annually at the RioTinto/MAC/UWA rock art field school, and was the Lead CI on the recently completed Murujuga: Dynamics of the Dreaming ARC Linkage project (MLP). My role on DHSC has been to continue the collaboration with the Murujuga Aboriginal Corporation (MAC), and to assist in the interpretation of cultural landscapes, coastal sites and any intertidal and submerged archaeology, by providing the terrestrial context from nearby and adjacent islands.

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Prof Jo McDonald during DHSC fieldwork (Photo: E. Beckett)

Working on DHSC has been great because it has provided boat access to potential submerged landscapes across the entire Archipelago.  This has been a welcome change to the systematic intensive recording and excavation programme, which involved slogging across islands on foot, fighting our way through dense un-burnt spinifex and camping-out for extended periods.  Some of the outer islands have been important to visit, as they have provided an extraordinary counter-point to some of the bigger islands with different geology and quite different archaeological records.

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Prof Jo McDonald during DHSC fieldwork (Photo: E. Beckett)

Our investigation of coastal stone features – combined with the LIDAR data, geomorphology, radiocarbon dating and diver surveys made this a plum area of potential – which has borne remarkable fruit.  So far, we have found limited hard rock – the matrix for region’s significant petroglyphs – extending into the intertidal and submerged waters.  We have, however, found numerous intertidal features (like Aboriginal quarries and fish traps), as well as documenting some amazing coastal platform petroglyph sites. This amazing cultural landscape involves both land and sea: we are looking forward to finding out more about the interface between the two domains.

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Prof Jo McDonald during DHSC fieldwork

 

DHSC CI Prof Sean Ulm

My core expertise is in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander coastal and island archaeology. Over the last 20 years I have led a large collaborative network of Quaternary scientists (geomorphology, chemistry, geology, ecology, palynology, palaeoclimatology, oceanography and zooarchaeology) and Indigenous communities to recast our understandings of coastal occupation models from the Holocene (the last 10,000 years) by integrating accurate climate models with detailed analyses of coastal archaeological sites. These studies articulate an integrated programme of research to increase confidence in data resolution underpinning models of past human behaviour. I consider continental shelf archaeology and underwater cultural heritage management to be of critical importance to both archaeologists and Indigenous communities. Working on the DHSC project has seen the realisation of an ambitious goal to fully integrate a team of archaeologists, geoscientists and Traditional Owner community members working seamlessly on land and below the sea.

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Prof Sean Ulm during DHSC fieldwork

My research focuses on persistent problems in the archaeology of northern Australia and the western Pacific where understanding the relationships between environmental change and cultural change using advanced studies of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental sequences are central to constructions of the human past. My priority has been to develop new tools to investigate and articulate co-variability and co-development of human and natural systems. These studies are part of a broader concern with increasing confidence in and resolution of the data used to develop models of past human behaviour. My research expands the methodological toolkit of archaeology by developing novel applications to refine the chronologies and resolution of data from coastal sites, including refining radiocarbon dating of marine materials; use of geospatial analysis to examine large-scale Aboriginal population and mobility changes; use of remote sensing to map Aboriginal intertidal structures; the development foraminifera and bivalve conjoin analyses to disentangle natural and anthropogenic marine shell deposits; and the use of stable isotope analyses to discriminate shellfish habitat. Understanding site formation processes and chronology-building are fundamental building-blocks of archaeological research.

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Prof Sean Ulm working in the shallow waters off QLD

The DHSC project has been a natural extension of my interests and expertise and represents an exciting new strand of Australian archaeology. Managing, investigating and understanding the archaeology of the Australian continental shelf in partnership with Indigenous Traditional Owners and custodians is one of the last frontiers in Australian archaeology. The results of the DHSC project will present some of the first steps in this journey of discovery, and confirming the archaeological potential of Australia’s continental shelves, and in beginning to fill what has remained until now a major gap in the human history of the continent.

 

The Archaeology of Europe’s Drowned Landscapes (Bailey et al 2020)

New Book! Open Access (Bailey et al 2020)

DHSC Senior Scholar Prof Geoff Bailey has been a pioneer in Submerged Landscape Archaeology for forty years. Now he has led the successful European SPLASHCOS Network to its final output, a major peer reviewed volume, published Open Access and available free for everyone.

This is a benchmark volume that will serve as a resource for scholars and students of archaeology and quaternary sciences for decades to come. The book is available to download via SpringerOpen.

https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-030-37367-2#toc

Archaeologists look below the ocean surface in Murujuga (Dampier Archipelago) via @ABCNews

Via ABC News

IMG_1149.jpgArchaeologists in the north-west of Western Australia are conducting a survey with a difference at the bottom of the ocean.

Key points:

  • The researchers have been looking for ancient Indigenous artefacts on the seabed in the Dampier Archipelago
  • Sea levels have risen 130m since the ice age, and artefacts like tools and rock carvings could still be underwater
  • The team plan to publicly share “pretty exciting results” at the end of the year

The pioneering project is searching for underwater evidence of ancient Indigenous culture in the Dampier Archipelago.

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DHSC Volunteer: Dr Madeline Fowler

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Part 1: Submerged sites

I joined the Deep History of Sea Country (DHSC) project on fieldwork at the island of Hjarnø, Denmark, in June 2018 as a representative of the Queensland Museum Network and James Cook University, both part of the UNESCO UNITWIN Network for Underwater Archaeology. This project was my first opportunity to engage with the fast-growing field of submerged ‘prehistory’. Since entering the maritime archaeology discipline, there have been no previous opportunities to take part in the study of submerged landscape archaeology in Australia. So, I was very excited to have this opportunity to contribute my scientific diving skills to the project, while also learning a great deal about the Mesolithic archaeology of Denmark.

Besides brushing up on my lithic identification skills, I gained experience in excavating a submerged landscape. The excavation in a shallow intertidal environment was very different to the nineteenth-century shipwrecks I have excavated before in Australia, given the diverse site and artefact types. Yet, excavation methods—that is the methods and techniques of underwater archaeology—are the same. Submerged landscape archaeologists add other methods to their toolkits, such as geophysics and coring. Using many sources is like the varied sources adopted by historical archaeologists, such as archival documents and oral histories. Both interdisciplinary approaches allow a more complete picture of the landscape and the way people interacted with it in the past.

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As a theorist, I couldn’t help asking the question: are they both maritime archaeology? A lack of exposure to submerged landscape archaeology throughout my education and training and within Australian maritime archaeology (owing to the drivers that led to its development) have led me to associate maritime archaeology with (Western) seafaring. Of course, maritime archaeology is, at its heart, the study of people, culture and their interactions and relationship with the sea through the material and physical remains left behind, preserved through time as archaeological evidence. The definition of maritime archaeology should encompass the entire range of people’s relationships to the seaboard and other aquatic bodies, and their physical and cultural environments.

The location of the submerged landscape we were excavating at Hjarnø was part of an ancient (palaeo- or perhaps meso-maritime) shore at the time of its creation by people archaeologists call the Ertebølle culture. Yet Ertebølle peoples’ intensive exploitation of marine resources must have led to a thorough knowledge of the underwater landscape at that time, such as the location of oyster and cockle beds. Thus, the submerged landscape in the past, though concealed from the peoples of the past, was an integral part of their cognition. Despite the site’s formation on land—and the lack of archaeological evidence of seafaring or nautical technology—the people were still connected to the maritime sphere. The now inundated sites are landscapes of maritime culture and maritime archaeologists must situate it within their remit.

While Australian archaeologists haven’t discovered submerged sites on the continental shelf, the increasing interest and resources in this field, such as the DHSC, will soon provide opportunities for Australian-based students, and early career researchers like me, to learn these skills at home. While I had the advantage of learning these skills firsthand in Denmark—an ideal global training-ground for submerged ‘prehistory’—I cannot call myself a submerged landscape archaeologist. Well, not yet anyway. What I can do is consider myself to be a better, more well-versed maritime archaeologist!

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Part 2: Submerged surveys

 

Fast-forward a year and I have re-joined the DHSC team in Murujuga (Dampier Archipelago), Western Australia, this time as a volunteer. I also have a my new role as a Senior Research Fellow with the University of Southampton, though I maintain an ongoing affiliation with Flinders University as an Adjunct Associate Lecturer. Unlike the Danish fieldwork, the research in Western Australia is searching for prospective areas of submerged archaeology, rather than excavating known sites.

The DHSC team has already spent some time surveying in Murujuga, integrating several aerial and marine survey datasets to refine the diver-based survey strategy. Remote sensing marine geophysical survey included bathymetric lidar and sidescan sonar investigation, in addition to drone-based aerial imagery. Combined with coastal and intertidal surveys, analysis of this data led to the identification of priority areas for diver survey this September.

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Using a survey grid with a 20-metre line-spacing has helped to define the survey in a systematic way and will establish whether or not the areas of interest are productive. Using a 100-metre leaded line, buoyed on both ends, diver buddy pairs surveyed the lines and tracked their location with a GPS attached to a dive flag buoy on the reel. With the cameras and GPS mirroring the time, underwater photographs of potential features of interest could later be positioned with accuracy. This survey approach presents an effective and accurate method for searching for submerged landscapes in Australia’s nearshore continental shelf environments, inundated by past sea-level rise.

Being involved in this intensive search for evidence of submerged landscapes in Australia has reinforced the promise of this study area to not only contribute to our understanding of Aboriginal peoples’ adaptation to changing environments in the past, but also to shifting the biases of Australian maritime archaeology. The next generation of archaeology students will be the first to fully embrace these opportunities, and, as an early career researcher, I may now be well on the way toward a fuller, better appreciation for submerged landscape archaeology as a global discipline and indeed, a progressing discipline in Australian archaeology.

 

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Follow Dr Fowler on Twitter: @drMaddyFowler